The production of a holographic image involves using coherent light to record a wave-interference pattern on a photographic plate. The wave-interference pattern is a two-dimensional recording of the diffraction pattern of a 3-dimensional object, and when it is illuminated with normal polychromatic light, it reproduces a 3-dimensional image. It is this phenomenon from which the relatively new theory within physics known as the Holographic Principle derives its name. The Holographic Principle was first formulated by Gerard t’Hooft when it was mathematically shown that the information (referred to as entropy within physics, or degrees of freedom for an even more technical-based moniker) within the volume of any 3-dimensional space can be fully described by the two-dimensional surface enclosing that space (see Berkenstein Conjecture for more in depth discussion of information mapping).
It was soon realized that this principle could resolve a putative problem that had arisen in physics known as the information loss paradox. Stephen Hawking conjectured that black holes should actually radiate with emissions of particles from the quantum vacuum, which would eventually lead to their evaporation, albeit over an astronomically long period of time for solar mass black holes. If nothing can escape from the interior region of the event horizon that would mean all of the information initially contained by the collapsed star would essentially have disappeared. This violates a quantum mechanical principle of the conservation of information, much like the conservation of mass and energy. However, if the information is holographically encoded by vacuum fluctuations on the surface of the light-like boundary of the graviational horizon, then it is still accessible to the “physical universe”, and is therefore not lost. Furthermore, the Hawking radiation may be quantum entangled with the trans-horizon area, making it possible that the interior information is retained in the emissions even as the black hole evaporates (assuming that black holes truly evaporate, as in fact, according to Haramein there is a continuous feedback of information from the vacuum fluctuations rendering a dynamics equilibrium state to black hole structures).
Expanding on this notion, physicist Juan Maldacena published a pivotal paper showing how Swarzschild black holes described in what is known as anti-De Sitter space (simply a spacetime with negative curvature) can be holographically approximated by two entangled quantum systems. The quantum systems are described by the mathematical formulations of quantum field theory, and anti-De Sitter space is a particular form of the geometric description of gravity in General Relativity, thus the holographic correspondence between these two theories is considered a particular solution of quantum gravity. Because it made possible the description of the evolution of black holes in accordance with the known principles of quantum mechanics, this Correspondence Principle appeared to resolve the seeming . And has now led to postulations that all of spacetime is built by quantum entanglement through black hole / wormholes, like an enormous network where particles are hubs and wormholes in the structure of the vacuum are the link between them (stay tuned for another article on this specific subject, with some of the latest publications in the near future).
Recently a team of researchers in Japan have offered mathematical support of this theory by testing its predictive power with a computer simulation. The particular computer simulation used is well respected because of its ability to model certain mathematical solutions to a high degree of accuracy. They found that the simulation resulted in a computed black hole mass that is exactly what would be predicted by the holographic description of an evaporating quantum black hole within the Holographic Principle.
While this has produced agreeable results that support the holographic formulation of quantum gravity and the elucidation of the quantum description of black holes, it may contain largely superfluous mathematics from the fact that it is formulated in 11-dimensions (10 dimensions of space and one dimension of time). This is because the solutions are generated within the context of 11-dimensional Supergravity, a theory of quantum gravity within the well-known physics of Superstring Theory. Wherein the vibration of infinitesimally small strings produce the characteristics matter and force that we are so familiar with. One of the complications of this theory is that we only observe 3 spatial dimensions (plus a temporal dimension, unified together as spacetime). So where are the other 7 dimensions described by this theory? Physicist have obviated this seeming deficit of observational support by suggesting that the extra dimensions are ‘compactified’ – that is to say they are compacted down into extremely small areas, conveniently too small to be measured and consequently resulting in compactification possibilities of these dimensions in the vacuum, one of the largest number of solutions outputted by any theory in history. As a result, in decades of investigation String Theory has not been able to produce one single prediction that could be verified experimentally.